Sarah Jane Evans MW looks at 'little brother' Valbuena, from one of Ribera del Duero's leading estates, Vega Sicilia...
Valbuena 5° may be seen as the little brother of Vega Sicilia’s flagship wine, Único, but it’s not actually little at all: in the years that Único isn’t made, the fruit will go to Valbuena.
Named after the nearby village of Valbuena de Duero, the ‘5°’ refers to the age of the wine, released after five (quinto) years of barrel and bottle age. There was formerly also a Valbuena 3, now discontinued.You might also like: Priorat in-depth and great reds to try Vega Sicilia’s new releases, including Único 2006 Premium California wines to buy in 2018
Dom Pérignon has announced that its long-standing chef de cave, Richard Geoffroy, will formally hand over to Vincent Chaperon at the end of the year.Long standing chef de cave Richard Geoffroy captured in the Champagne vineyards with his successor Vincent Chaperon.
After 28 years as chef de cave at Dom Pérignon Champagne, Richard Geoffroy will pass the baton to his assistant winemaker, Vincent Chaperon, from 1 January 2019, the house announced today (18 June).
It means that, from next year, Chaperon will take charge of shaping the style and quality of Dom Pérignon’s future vintages.
Chaperon joined Dom Pérignon’s parent Champagne house, Moët & Chandon, in 1999 and became an assistant winemaker a year later.
He has been working alongside Geoffroy for the past 13 harvests and they have declared four vintages together.
Richard Geoffroy, a former doctor of medicine, took up his role as Dom Pérignon’s chef de cave in 1990, crafting and declaring 15 vintages between 1990 and 2009.
‘His job description may say “chef de cave”, but really he’s the brand’s incarnation. He is ultra-visible, ultra-knowledgeable, ultra-approachable,’ said Margaret Rand in her 2013 interview with Geoffroy for Decanter.
Geoffroy created Dom Pérignon’s ‘Plénitude’ Champagne concept, which involves disgorging and releasing the wine during different stages of its development on the lees.
During his long reign as cellar master Geoffroy has collaborated with artist Jeff Koons, filmmaker David Lynch and, most recently, Grammy Award-winning musician Lenny Kravtiz. He has also worked with world-famous chefs Ferran Adrià and Alain Ducasse.
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Andrew Jefford briefly considers the implications of treating Champagne and other protected terms as simply 'common-name products'.
Most mornings, before dawn or after, I tune into Farming Today on BBC Radio 4.
A recent interview with Shawna Morris, vice president of trade policy for the US Dairy Export Council, made me choke on my tea (Twinings Vintage Darjeeling, 92 points, note on application).
She brightly suggested that one of the advantages Britons might like to seize, on leaving the EU, was the chance to abandon European name-protection legislation. ‘Our issue is, frankly, overreach,’ she complained of the existing system.
Champagne and Cognac (as well as Parma ham and what she called ‘Parmegian’) were, Morris suggested, examples of ‘common-name products’ whose names should be free for all to use, claiming that protection of such names by the EU was akin to someone ‘trademarking the name “sausage” or “oyster’”.
Post-Brexit, English sparkling wine producers, in other words, could call their wines Champagne. Julian Temperley might consider renaming his Somerset Cider Brandy as Somerset Cider Cognac.
Almost as dismaying as her argument was the fact that the interviewer dozily failed to challenge these suggestions, or to ask whether she accepted that there was a difference between a common noun and a place name.
During a year in which Britain’s proposed disengagement from Europe kicks other political challenges into the outfield, and in which the US President vaunts tariffs and protectionism as a means of righting trade imbalances, it’s worth considering the value of European-inspired geographical name protection (PDO or Protected Designation of Origin, and PGI or Protected Geographical Indication).
This notion came into being in the wine world first of all – after decades of abuse and the destruction of livelihoods caused by passing off one product as another with an intrinsic, quality-based reputation. If you’d bought a bottle of ‘Champagne’ in the first decade of the 20th century, you might have been consuming fermented juice pressed from Languedoc, German or Spanish grapes – even, if rumour is to be believed, from English rhubarb. The riots that ensued from this fraud, in what was still a miserably poor area of France, saw Aÿ burnt in 1911. Finding a legal framework for Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) was subject to many false starts and revisions; the first (A for Arbois) was awarded in May 1936.
The system has been so successful that, in terms of the basic tenets of geographical indication (rather than production legislation), it’s now almost universal in the wine world, and a creator of value for producers everywhere. It’s revolutionised food production, too, helping quality producers maintain the margins for survival and protecting vulnerable local specialities.
I’m (just) old enough to remember a little of what the British wine trade was like prior to Britain’s entry into the European Economic Community in 1973. I still have a wine label from one of the bottles I trustingly bought in Norwich in 1972. It says ‘Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Grand Vin de Bourgogne’ – and was probably neither. Today’s Chinese consumers suffer in much the same way, though in this case it’s fraudulent brands rather than fraudulent GIs that tend to be the cause.
At root, the issue is about truth-telling in commerce. The only route to value (for the producer, for the consumer; value both pecuniary and moral, objective and affective) lies in truth, legally supported and policed. Once you start to tell lies about a bottle of wine or piece of cheese, value begins to erode and will, sooner or later, be entirely lost.
That’s why the cheese casually called ‘Cheddar’ around the world is often a ghastly purchase: we failed long ago to protect this geographical name, and it surrendered all meaning and value. (Not so for West Country Farmhouse Cheddar, whose PDO has helped it retain savour.) Rather than disengaging, as suggested by Morris, in 2018 Britain should reinforce its engagement to this precious European achievement. Will it?
See more Andrew Jefford columns on Decanter.com Read more magazine articles from our July 2018 issue
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Accessible and affordable, second wines offer the chance for a wider audience to experience the unique sweet character of Sauternes. James Lawther MW explores how these second wines are made and recommends bottles to try...The first thing I was offered at La Chapelle, the recently opened restaurant at Château Guiraud in Sauternes, was a tasting glass of the estate’s second wine, Petit Guiraud. It arrived with a tiny, savoury amuse-bouche, a delicious concoction made with Bayonne ham. This was all part of the new charm offensive that Sauternes is currently laying on for visitors to freshen the traditional image of this sweet wine appellation. Forget the age-old ‘pudding wine’ concept and think aperitif, appetiser, wine by the glass, wine bar, relaxed atmosphere and immediate gratification via the more accessible second labels. Scroll down for Lawther’s pick of second labels from Sauternes Sauternes has long been accused of being dusty and outmoded, but there’s a shake-up going on. Down the line, second growth Château d’Arche is set to complement its hotel with a new spa. Simultaneously, an increasing number of châteaux, including Yquem, are now open to the public by appointment. Further afield the problem is persuading consumers to take the plunge and experience the delights and complexity of this great wine – and that’s where the second labels play a part. This is not to say the grand vin is being sidelined. All producers agree that their ultimate goal in any given vintage is to make as much of the top wine as possible.
And with the increasing sophistication of viticultural and winemaking practices (pruning methods, selective harvesting, control of sulphur dioxide, barrel fermentation, ageing), as well as the botrytised potential of recent years, this has become more and more feasible.But these are great wines that need time to open and develop in bottle. They also have the potential to age for a considerable length of time. The product of a natural phenomenon, botrytis cinerea or noble rot, they require skill, patience and experience to produce, so naturally there is a price to pay. Enter the second wine. New intentions
Until the new millennium most Sauternes classed-growth second wines were what Pierre Montégut, technical director at first growth Château Suduiraut, describes as ‘a typical Bordelaise second wine, made without a clear guideline to production and style, from young vines and batches that were unwanted in the grand vin’.
Most producers look to their second wines as a more open interpretation of their top wine, but these days extra thought goes into the shape and form and how it is achieved. The second wine, after all, serves as both an introduction to Sauternes and a stepping-stone to the top wine.
Château Suduiraut even has two second labels – Castelnau de Suduiraut and Lions de Suduiraut.
Montégut explains: ‘As the selection for Suduiraut became increasingly rigorous from 2001 onwards, our tastings began to identify batches of wine that expressed themselves earlier than those for Suduiraut.
‘Some were more classical in style so are now aimed at Castelnau, while others were fruitier and flattering which is the style of Lions. The batches were then traced to individual parcels, which enabled us to draw up a map identifying the plots for each of thethree wines. It doesn’t always work 100% this way, but gets us very close.’
Castelnau, which was originally created in 1992, evolved like this, with Lions taking on a separate identity from 2009. As Montégut points out, it’s not necessarily a question of young vines but terroir, as there is a parcel of 60-year-old vines on sandier soils which is usually destined for Lions.
Nor is it a question of residual sugar: the three cuvées from 2013 all hover around 143g/l to 150g/l of sugar. ‘You need a certain concentration to allow the botrytised aromatics of Semillon to develop,’ he argues. Length of barrel-ageing and the percentage of new oak do, however, vary for the three wines.
In a structured way Suduiraut has created three cuvées for three different profiles:
- Suduiraut for the connoisseur with deeper pockets who is willing to bide his or her time;
- Castelnau for the eager, classical palate;
- Lions for the freewheeling, debutant consumer.
The last two are half the price of the grand vin. In a certain way this democratises decent Sauternes, allowing the first-time buyer a taste of good botrytised wine.Style choices
While Suduiraut and Château Rabaud-Promis, with its second wine Promesse, have opted for a more full-blown, richer style for their second wines, Château Guiraud has taken the opposite tack.
‘We wanted a wine that was more spontaneous in style, something sapid and aromatic, which gives instant pleasure and is limited in its concentration, the idea being that it would bring new consumers into the fold,’ explains Xavier Planty, manager of Guiraud for the past 32 years and co-owner since 2006.
Consequently, the previous second label, Le Dauphin, was abandoned and Petit Guiraud was introduced in 2011. The 2013 version, which is presently being poured from magnum at La Chapelle restaurant, weighs in at 76g/l residual sugar.
As at Suduiraut, certain parcels at Guiraud have been identified for making the second label. But two other factors are brought into play when it comes to the balance of the wine.
Guiraud has more Sauvignon Blanc planted than many estates and the blend of 65% Semillon and 35% Sauvignon Blanc in the 2013 reflects this feature.
The other characteristic is that the search for concentration is less extreme. ‘Whereas we will never harvest grapes for the grand vin under 20% or 21% potential alcohol, those for Petit Guiraud are picked at 17% or 18% when the botrytis offers aroma but less concentration,’ explains Planty.
There are, of course, other factors such as pH and acidity that have an influence when it comes to judging the balance and concentration of a Sauternes.
Vintage, too, plays a part, with years like 2013 and 2014 offering greater acidity and perceptive freshness than richer, ‘solar’ years like 2015 and 2016. That being said, the majority of second wines I tasted from a range of vintages had a residual sugar level of between 113g/l to 127g/l and came across as balanced, with just the right degree of sweetness.
‘Our style is one of lightness and finesse with less residual sugar and our second wine, Lieutenant, mirrors this character,’ says Laure de Lambert, owner of first growth Château Sigalas Rabaud.Fresh approach
Another tip, if you are searching for a little more freshness, is to take a look at the second wines from Barsac, one of the five Sauternes communes.
Located on a lower-lying plateau, Barsac – which has the right to label its wines as Barsac or Sauternes – has a reputation for acidity and freshness, a feature provided by the red, clay-like sand and limestone soils found in this part of the appellation.
Château Climens is the leading estate here and its second wine, Cyprès, is as good as it gets. Calling it a second label is almost abusive.
Created in 1984, the name Cyprès (‘cypress’ in English) was inspired by the fact that way back in the Middle Ages a cypress branch was issued as a receipt to prove that the tax for shipping wine from Barsac to Bordeaux had been paid. These days cypress berries have a more practical use as they are included in a preparation used to spray for grapevine moth at the biodynamic-certified Climens.
The production of Cyprès is based uniquely on tasting, with both the grand vin and second wine receiving exactly the same treatment when it comes to vinification, maturation, percentage of new oak and time of bottling.
The quality of the harvest is the fundamental factor at the outset. ‘There are no flying winemakers in the cellars tweaking the wines, as it’s all down to nature,’ says technical director Frédéric Nivelle. Thereafter the various batches of wine (between 15 to 25 batches, which is the equivalent of 150 to 200 barrels depending on the year) are tasted on a regular basis and the blend for the two wines is made gradually during the period of maturation, dependent on how each batch evolves.
The eventual result gives an average in terms of volume of 60% grand vin, 40% second wine – and on the evidence of tasting the 2015s side by side, it produces a Cyprès that is open and expressive early on, compared to the more intense but reticent Climens.
Of course, there is no second label at the great Yquem, but in a way this is just as well, as it would probably be another vehicle for speculation.
Essentially, the second wines being produced by the classed growths today are for drinking, the objective being to encourage a new clientele.
And with a slight change in mindset and the comprehension of quality and value they could help win the day for Sauternes in its battle for viability and global appreciation.
Sauternes at a glance
Area under production: 1,978ha (2016)
Communes: Barsac, Bommes, Fargues, Preignac, Sauternes
Production: 43,178hl or 5.8 million bottles (2016)
Yield: 21.8hl/ha (2016)
Classed growths of 1855: 26 (45% surface area, 40% volume)
Grape varieties: Semillon (80%), Sauvignon Blanc (17%), Muscadelle (3%)
Soils: Sand, gravel, clay, limestone
Lively, fresh with good acidity and citrus notes (still with botrytised concentration): 2014, 2013, 2011, 2007.
Richer, rounder with tropical fruit notes: 2016, 2015, 2010, 2009.
Lighter and more uneven: 2012 (sometimes no grand vin made), 2008
See Lawther’s pick of second labels from Sauternes
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